[[ノート/テキストマイニング]]~
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> [[ノート/テキストマイニング]]~
> [[ノート/テキストマイニング/テキストマイニングとシソーラス]]~
> [[ノート/テキストマイニング/PubMed解析]]~
> [[ノート/テキストマイニング/NLTK]]~

**[[シソーラスMeSHの扱い>ノート/テキストマイニング/MeSH]] [#fb7f4a5d]
-[[MeSHのトップ:http://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/meshhome.html]]
-[[XMLの解説:http://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/xmlmesh.html]]

**PubMedのClinical Queries [#o199cb34]
ここでのテーマ: PubMedにあるClinical Queriesの真似をしてみたい

-[[Clinical Queriesのページ:http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/clinical]]~
治療に関する情報だけを検索する

-検索を狭める方法についての解説
--Clinical Queriesのヘルプファイル [[Clinical Queries using Research Methodology Filters:http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK3827/#pubmedhelp.Clinical_Queries_Filters]]
--それらのQueriesの原理を書いた論文のリスト [[Summary of Enhancements for Clinical Queries for MEDLINE for Studies:http://www.nlm.nih.gov/pubs/techbull/jf04/cq_info.html]]

--Clinical Queriesのカテゴリーとしてtherapyを選ぶと、PubMed上での次のようなQueryに変換することになるらしい[[ヘルプファイル:Clinical Queries using Research Methodology Filters:http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK3827/#pubmedhelp.Clinical_Queries_Filters]]のPubMed equivalentの欄を見ると、以下の様になっている。
---broadの場合: ((clinical[Title/Abstract] AND trial[Title/Abstract]) OR clinical trials[MeSH Terms] OR clinical trial[Publication Type] OR random*[Title/Abstract] OR random allocation[MeSH Terms] OR therapeutic use[MeSH Subheading])
---narrowの場合: (randomized controlled trial[Publication Type] OR (randomized[Title/Abstract] AND controlled[Title/Abstract] AND trial[Title/Abstract])) 
---ここでrandomizedとかrandomized controlled trialとかcontrolledが何かは、未だ理解できていない。
---clinical[Title/Abstract]の意味は?  PubMedデータ中のTitle/Abstractフィールドに、言葉"clinical"が入っていると言うことだろう。
---broadの場合だと、((clinical[Title/Abstract] AND trial[Title/Abstract]) OR clinical trials[MeSH Terms] OR clinical trial[Publication Type] OR random*[Title/Abstract] OR random allocation[MeSH Terms] OR therapeutic use[MeSH Subheading]) と 自分が探したいたとえば "cancer" AND "aspirin" をANDしてやるのか?~
結果は
 Results: 1 to 20 of 1836
 1. Effect of daily aspirin on long-term risk of death due to cancer: analysis of individual patient
    data from randomised trials.
 Rothwell PM, Fowkes FG, Belch JF, Ogawa H, Warlow CP, Meade TW.
 Lancet. 2010 Dec 6. [Epub ahead of print]PMID: 21144578 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
 2. Low-dose aspirin use and performance of immunochemical fecal occult blood tests.
 Brenner H, Tao S, Haug U.
 JAMA. 2010 Dec 8;304(22):2513-20.PMID: 21139112 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
   Related citations
 3. Inflammatory Markers are Associated with Risk of Colorectal Cancer and Chemopreventative Response
    to Anti-Inflammatory Drugs.
 Chan AT, Ogino S, Giovannucci EL, Fuchs CS.
 Gastroenterology. 2010 Nov 26. [Epub ahead of print]PMID: 21115010 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
   Related citations
 4. Keeping cancer from coming back. Should cancer survivors take vitamin supplements?
   Aspirin may be a better bet.
 [No authors listed]
 Harv Health Lett. 2010 Oct;35(12):3. No abstract available. PMID: 21089263
   [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related citations
 5. Aspirin chemoprevention of gastrointestinal cancer in the next decade. A review of the evidence.
 Jankowska H, Hooper P, Jankowski JA.
 Pol Arch Med Wewn. 2010 Oct;120(10):407-12.PMID: 20980946 [PubMed - in process]
   Free ArticleRelated citations
 以下略
元のclinical queryページで検索した結果は
 Results: 5 of 1836
 * Effect of daily aspirin on long-term risk of death due to cancer: analysis of individual patient
   data from randomised trials.[Lancet. 2010]
      Effect of daily aspirin on long-term risk of death due to cancer: analysis of individual 
      patient data from randomised trials.
      Rothwell PM, Fowkes FG, Belch JF, Ogawa H, Warlow CP, Meade TW. Lancet. 2010 Dec 6Epub 2010 Dec 6.
 * Low-dose aspirin use and performance of immunochemical fecal occult blood tests.[JAMA. 2010]
      Low-dose aspirin use and performance of immunochemical fecal occult blood tests.
      Brenner H, Tao S, Haug U. JAMA. 2010 Dec 8; 304(22):2513-20.
 * Inflammatory Markers are Associated with Risk of Colorectal Cancer and Chemopreventative Response to 
   Anti-Inflammatory Drugs.[Gastroenterology. 2010]
 * Keeping cancer from coming back. Should cancer survivors take vitamin supplements?
   Aspirin may be a better bet.[Harv Health Lett. 2010]
      Keeping cancer from coming back. Should cancer survivors take vitamin supplements? Aspirin may be
      a better bet.
      [No authors listed]. Harv Health Lett. 2010 Oct; 35(12):3.
 * Aspirin chemoprevention of gastrointestinal cancer in the next decade. A review of the evidence.
   [Pol Arch Med Wewn. 2010]

**ここから考えられること? [#z6699604]
上記の Clinical Queries は、AND/ORブール式による問合せで、タイトルにclinicalとかが出てくるかを拾っている。~
これをもう少し解釈して何かできないか?

まず、aspirinが薬の名前であることは、そのような入力欄を作ってユーザに区別させてもいいし、調べる気になればMeSHを見れば分るだろう。ちなみに、MeSHのAspirinのエントリーは、MeSH Descriptor Dataをブラウザ(NLM MeSH Browser)で見ると
 MeSH Heading     Aspirin
 中略
 MeSH Tree Structures
   Organic Chemicals [D02]				
   Carboxylic Acids [D02.241]				
      Acids, Carbocyclic [D02.241.223]				
         Benzoic Acids [D02.241.223.100]				
            Hydroxybenzoic Acids [D02.241.223.100.380]				
               Salicylic Acids [D02.241.223.100.380.800]				
	Aminosalicylic Acids [D02.241.223.100.380.800.050]  +			
	Anacardic Acids [D02.241.223.100.380.800.062]			
	Aspirin [D02.241.223.100.380.800.075]			
	Diflunisal [D02.241.223.100.380.800.300]			
	Salicylic Acid [D02.241.223.100.380.800.801]  +			
と書かれている。つまり、Organic Chemicalであるから、薬である。

cancerも同様にすると、MeSH上ではNeoplasmsとして出ている。データは、
 MeSH Heading     Neoplasms
 中略
 MeSH Tree Structures
  Neoplasms [C04]				
		Cysts [C04.182]  +		
		Hamartoma [C04.445]  +		
		Neoplasms by Histologic Type [C04.557]  +		
		Neoplasms by Site [C04.588]  +		
		Neoplasms, Experimental [C04.619]  +		
		Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent [C04.626]		
		Neoplasms, Multiple Primary [C04.651]  +		
		Neoplasms, Post-Traumatic [C04.666]		
		Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced [C04.682]  +		
		Neoplasms, Second Primary [C04.692]		
		Neoplastic Processes [C04.697]  +		
		Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary [C04.700]  +		
		Paraneoplastic Syndromes [C04.730]  +		
		Precancerous Conditions [C04.834]  +		
		Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic [C04.850]  +		
		Tumor Virus Infections [C04.925]  +		
であり、これが病名であると言う情報があるか? Treeの中に例えばSyndromesがあるのは病名である証か?

本気で調べるとすると、たとえばdiseasesから木をたどる。
 Pathological Conditions, Signs and Symptoms [C23]  <-- ここからスタート?	
   Pathologic Processes [C23.550]				
	Acantholysis [C23.550.035]			
	Arrhythmias, Cardiac [C23.550.073]  +			
	Ascites [C23.550.081]			
	Azotemia [C23.550.145]			
	Channelopathies [C23.550.177]			
	Chromosome Aberrations [C23.550.210]  +			
	Death [C23.550.260]  +			
	Dehydration [C23.550.274]			
	Delayed Graft Function [C23.550.277]			
	Disease [C23.550.288]	                    <-- Diseaseはここ		
		Syndrome [C23.550.288.500]		
	Disease Attributes [C23.550.291]  +			
	Emphysema [C23.550.325]  +			
	Extravasation of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Materials [C23.550.340]			
	Femoracetabular Impingement [C23.550.347]			
	Fibrosis [C23.550.355]  +			
	Genomic Instability [C23.550.362]  +			
	Gliosis [C23.550.369]			
	Granuloma [C23.550.382]  +			
	Granulomatosis, Orofacial [C23.550.384]			
	Growth Disorders [C23.550.393]  +			
	Hemolysis [C23.550.403]			
	Hemorrhage [C23.550.414]  +			
	Hyperammonemia [C23.550.421]			
	Hyperamylasemia [C23.550.425]			
	Hyperbilirubinemia [C23.550.429]  +			
	Hyperplasia [C23.550.444]			
	Hyperuricemia [C23.550.449]			
	Hypovolemia [C23.550.455]			
	Inflammation [C23.550.470]  +			
	Intraoperative Complications [C23.550.505]  +			
	Ischemia [C23.550.513]  +			
	Leukoaraiosis [C23.550.522]			
	Leukocytosis [C23.550.526]			
	Lithiasis [C23.550.537]			
	Malacoplakia [C23.550.548]			
	Menstruation Disturbances [C23.550.568]  +			
	Metaplasia [C23.550.589]  +			
	Muscle Weakness [C23.550.695]			
	Necrosis [C23.550.717]  +			
	Neointima [C23.550.722]			
	Neoplastic Processes [C23.550.727]  +	      <-- Neoplasmはここ
	Nerve Degeneration [C23.550.737]  +			
	Ochronosis [C23.550.744]			
	Ossification, Heterotopic [C23.550.751]  +			
	Postoperative Complications [C23.550.767]  +			
	Retropneumoperitoneum [C23.550.794]			
	Sclerosis [C23.550.823]			
	Shock [C23.550.835]  +			
	Ulcer [C23.550.891]			
	Yang Deficiency [C23.550.945]			
	Yin Deficiency [C23.550.972]
なので、Diseaseとは同レベル、正しく追うにはDiseaseより2つ上のC23 Pathological Condisions, Signs and Symptoms から始める必要があるらしい。~
ここでは、この単語が薬か病名かを区別すればいいだけなので、あらかじめPathological Conditions...の下にぶらさがっているタームを拾って表にしておいてもいいだろう。

**検索 〜どの論文を拾うか〜 AND検索と比較して何かよくすることができそうか [#j2c1965e]
出発点に戻ろう。~
PubMedのClinical Queriesでは、キーワードの他にAND条件でclinical等を入れることによって、欲しいものを抽出しようとしているようだ。~
これに代る検索抽出方法が可能か? 特に文法的な情報・語のつながりの情報を使って、検索を合理的に絞り込むことができるか?

まずは有効な方法があるかどうかを試すべきだろう。もし有効な方法があるならば、それを実現するシステムのつくりかたを考えるのはその後でもよいことにしよう。

例で考えよう。2010/12/21現在のデータで試してみる。
-まずPubMedでAspirin and Colorectal cancer (clinicalは無し)でPubMedを検索すると、828件のヒットがあり、トップ20件のリストは
++Cyclooxygenase as a Target for Colorectal Cancer Chemoprevention.
Moreira L, Castells A.~
Curr Drug Targets. 2010 Dec 15. [Epub ahead of print]PMID: 21158711 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]Related citations
++Association between Folate Levels and CpG Island Hypermethylation in Normal Colorectal Mucosa.  
Wallace K, Grau MV, Levine AJ, Shen L, Hamdan R, Chen X, Gui J, Haile RW, Barry EL, Ahnen D, McKeown-Eyssen G, Baron JA, Issa JP.~
Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2010 Dec;3(12):1552-64.PMID: 21149331 [PubMed - in process]Related citations
++Effect of daily aspirin on long-term risk of death due to cancer: analysis of individual patient data from randomised trials. 
Rothwell PM, Fowkes FG, Belch JF, Ogawa H, Warlow CP, Meade TW.~
Lancet. 2010 Dec 6. [Epub ahead of print]PMID: 21144578 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]Related citations
++The Melbourne Colorectal Cancer Study: reflections on a 30-year experience.
Kune GA.~
Med J Aust. 2010 Dec 6;193(11-12):648-52.PMID: 21143050 [PubMed - in process]Related citations
++Low-dose aspirin use and performance of immunochemical fecal occult blood tests.
Brenner H, Tao S, Haug U.~
JAMA. 2010 Dec 8;304(22):2513-20.PMID: 21139112 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related citations
++Inflammatory Markers are Associated with Risk of Colorectal Cancer and Chemopreventative Response to Anti-Inflammatory Drugs.
Chan AT, Ogino S, Giovannucci EL, Fuchs CS.~
Gastroenterology. 2010 Nov 26. [Epub ahead of print]PMID: 21115010 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]Related citations
++Genetic variation in the TGF{beta}-signaling pathway and colon and rectal cancer risk.
Slattery ML, Herrick J, Lundgreen A, Wolff RK.~
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010 Nov 10. [Epub ahead of print]PMID: 21068203 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]Related citations
++Aspirin: old drug, new uses and challenges*
Yeomans ND.~
J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010 Nov 10. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1746.2010.06569.x. [Epub ahead of print]PMID: 21062358 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]Related citations
++TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand cooperates with NSAIDs via activated Wnt signalling in (pre)malignant colon cells.
Heijink DM, Jalving M, Oosterhuis D, Sloots IA, Koster R, Hollema H, Kleibeuker JH, Koornstra JJ, de Vries EG, de Jong S.~
J Pathol. 2010 Sep 29. [Epub ahead of print]PMID: 21038314 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]Related citations
++Long-term effect of aspirin on colorectal cancer incidence and mortality: 20-year follow-up of five randomised trials.
Rothwell PM, Wilson M, Elwin CE, Norrving B, Algra A, Warlow CP, Meade TW.~
Lancet. 2010 Nov 20;376(9754):1741-50. Epub 2010 Oct 21.PMID: 20970847 [PubMed - in process]Related citations
++Aspirin to prevent colorectal cancer: time to act?
Benamouzig R, Uzzan B.~
Lancet. 2010 Nov 20;376(9754):1713-4. Epub 2010 Oct 21. No abstract available. PMID: 20970845 [PubMed - in process]Related citations
++Aspirin promotes apoptosis in a murine model of colorectal cancer by mechanisms involving downregulation of IL-6-STAT3 signaling pathway.
Tian Y, Ye Y, Gao W, Chen H, Song T, Wang D, Mao X, Ren C.~
Int J Colorectal Dis. 2010 Oct 1. [Epub ahead of print]PMID: 20886344 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]Related citations
++Effect of aspirin and NSAIDs on risk and survival from colorectal cancer.
Din FV, Theodoratou E, Farrington SM, Tenesa A, Barnetson RA, Cetnarskyj R, Stark L, Porteous ME, Campbell H, Dunlop MG.~
Gut. 2010 Dec;59(12):1670-9. Epub 2010 Sep 15. Review.PMID: 20844293 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related citations
++Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use and colorectal polyps in the prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian cancer screening trial.
Johnson CC, Hayes RB, Schoen RE, Gunter MJ, Huang WY.~
Am J Gastroenterol. 2010 Dec;105(12):2646-55. Epub 2010 Aug 31.PMID: 20808298 [PubMed - in process]Related citations
++Ornithine decarboxylase-1 polymorphism, chemoprevention with eflornithine and sulindac, and outcomes among colorectal adenoma patients.
Zell JA, McLaren CE, Chen WP, Thompson PA, Gerner EW, Meyskens FL.~
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2010 Oct 6;102(19):1513-6. Epub 2010 Aug 26.PMID: 20798393 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related citations
++Risk of proximal colonic neoplasms in asymptomatic adults older than 50 years found to have distal hyperplastic polyps on routine colorectal cancer screening.
Collins BD.~
Perm J. 2010 Summer;14(2):11-6.PMID: 20740111 [PubMed - in process]Free PMC ArticleFree textRelated citations
++Use of Aspirin and NSAIDs to Prevent Colorectal Cancer [Internet].
Rostom A, Dube C, Lewin G.~
Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2007 Mar.PMID: 20722142 [PubMed]Books & DocumentsFree textRelated citations
++Long-term Use of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors Is Associated With Decreased Incidence of Advanced Adenomatous Colon Polyps.~
Kedika R, Patel M, Pena Sahdala HN, Mahgoub A, Cipher D, Siddiqui AA.~
J Clin Gastroenterol. 2010 Aug 6. [Epub ahead of print]PMID: 20697294 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]Related citations
++Role of vitamin and mineral supplementation and aspirin use in cancer survivors.
Giovannucci E, Chan AT.~
J Clin Oncol. 2010 Sep 10;28(26):4081-5. Epub 2010 Aug 9. Review.PMID: 20697066 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related citations
++The comparison of the clinical manifestations and risk factors of colorectal cancer and adenomas: results from a colonoscopy-based study in southern Chinese.
Huang L, Wang X, Gong W, Huang Y, Jiang B.~
Int J Colorectal Dis. 2010 Nov;25(11):1343-51. Epub 2010 Aug 3.PMID: 20680303 [PubMed - in process]Related citations
++NO-releasing NSAIDs suppress NF-κB signaling in vitro and in vivo through S-nitrosylation.
Chattopadhyay M, Goswami S, Rodes DB, Kodela R, Velazquez CA, Boring D, Crowell JA, Kashfi K.~
Cancer Lett. 2010 Dec 8;298(2):204-11. Epub 2010 Jul 31.PMID: 20674154 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related citations
++Effect of statin therapy on colorectal cancer.
Bardou M, Barkun A, Martel M.~
Gut. 2010 Nov;59(11):1572-85. Epub 2010 Jul 26. Review.PMID: 20660702 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related citations

-次に、clinical queriesでAspirin and Colorectal cancerを検索すると、610個のヒットがあり、トップ20を列挙すると
++Effect of daily aspirin on long-term risk of death due to cancer: analysis of individual patient data from randomised trials.
Rothwell PM, Fowkes FG, Belch JF, Ogawa H, Warlow CP, Meade TW.~
Lancet. 2010 Dec 6. [Epub ahead of print]PMID: 21144578 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]Related citations
++Low-dose aspirin use and performance of immunochemical fecal occult blood tests.
Brenner H, Tao S, Haug U.~
JAMA. 2010 Dec 8;304(22):2513-20.PMID: 21139112 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related citations
++Inflammatory Markers are Associated with Risk of Colorectal Cancer and Chemopreventative Response to Anti-Inflammatory Drugs.
Chan AT, Ogino S, Giovannucci EL, Fuchs CS.~
Gastroenterology. 2010 Nov 26. [Epub ahead of print]PMID: 21115010 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]Related citations
++Long-term effect of aspirin on colorectal cancer incidence and mortality: 20-year follow-up of five randomised trials.
Rothwell PM, Wilson M, Elwin CE, Norrving B, Algra A, Warlow CP, Meade TW.~
Lancet. 2010 Nov 20;376(9754):1741-50. Epub 2010 Oct 21.PMID: 20970847 [PubMed - in process]Related citations
++Effect of aspirin and NSAIDs on risk and survival from colorectal cancer.
Din FV, Theodoratou E, Farrington SM, Tenesa A, Barnetson RA, Cetnarskyj R, Stark L, Porteous ME, Campbell H, Dunlop MG.~
Gut. 2010 Dec;59(12):1670-9. Epub 2010 Sep 15. Review.PMID: 20844293 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related citations
++Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use and colorectal polyps in the prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian cancer screening trial.
Johnson CC, Hayes RB, Schoen RE, Gunter MJ, Huang WY.~
Am J Gastroenterol. 2010 Dec;105(12):2646-55. Epub 2010 Aug 31.PMID: 20808298 [PubMed - in process]Related citations
++Ornithine decarboxylase-1 polymorphism, chemoprevention with eflornithine and sulindac, and outcomes among colorectal adenoma patients.
Zell JA, McLaren CE, Chen WP, Thompson PA, Gerner EW, Meyskens FL.~
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2010 Oct 6;102(19):1513-6. Epub 2010 Aug 26.PMID: 20798393 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related citations
++Role of vitamin and mineral supplementation and aspirin use in cancer survivors.
Giovannucci E, Chan AT.~
J Clin Oncol. 2010 Sep 10;28(26):4081-5. Epub 2010 Aug 9. Review.PMID: 20697066 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related citations
++Effect of statin therapy on colorectal cancer.
Bardou M, Barkun A, Martel M.~
Gut. 2010 Nov;59(11):1572-85. Epub 2010 Jul 26. Review.PMID: 20660702 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related citations
++Clinical inquiries. Is aspirin effective for primary prevention of colon cancer?
Rufner KL, Park MK, Tweed EM.~
J Fam Pract. 2010 Jul;59(7):E410c-d. Review. No abstract available. PMID: 20625563 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related citations
++Chemoprevention of colorectal cancer: systematic review and economic evaluation.
Cooper K, Squires H, Carroll C, Papaioannou D, Booth A, Logan RF, Maguire C, Hind D, Tappenden P.~
Health Technol Assess. 2010 Jun;14(32):1-206. Review.PMID: 20594533 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Free ArticleRelated citations
++Meat consumption, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, and mortality among colorectal cancer patients in the California Teachers Study.
Zell JA, Ziogas A, Bernstein L, Clarke CA, Deapen D, Largent JA, Neuhausen SL, Stram DO, Ursin G, Anton-Culver H.~
Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2010 Jul;3(7):865-75. Epub 2010 Jun 15.PMID: 20551290 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related citations
++Levels of rectal mucosal polyamines and prostaglandin E2 predict ability of DFMO and sulindac to prevent colorectal adenoma.
Thompson PA, Wertheim BC, Zell JA, Chen WP, McLaren CE, LaFleur BJ, Meyskens FL, Gerner EW.~
Gastroenterology. 2010 Sep;139(3):797-805, 805.e1. Epub 2010 Jun 9.PMID: 20538001 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related citations
++Nanoparticulate delivery of novel drug combination regimens for the chemoprevention of colon cancer.
Kanthamneni N, Chaudhary A, Wang J, Prabhu S.~
Int J Oncol. 2010 Jul;37(1):177-85.PMID: 20514409 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related citations
++COX-2 as a target for cancer chemotherapy.
Ghosh N, Chaki R, Mandal V, Mandal SC.~
Pharmacol Rep. 2010 Mar-Apr;62(2):233-44. Review.PMID: 20508278 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Free ArticleRelated citations
++Chemoprophylaxis in gastrointestinal tumors.
Zilli M, Iacobelli S.~
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2010 Apr;14(4):285-91. Review.PMID: 20496537 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related citations
++Probing the occult: testing for blood in the stools.
McCarthy DM.~
Dig Dis Sci. 2010 Jun;55(6):1503-5. No abstract available. PMID: 20431946 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related citations
++Cyclooxygenase-2 expression and recurrence of colorectal adenomas: effect of aspirin chemoprevention.
Benamouzig R, Uzzan B, Martin A, Deyra J, Little J, Girard B, Chaussade S; APACC Study Group.~
Gut. 2010 May;59(5):622-9.PMID: 20427397 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related citations
++COX-2 expression in adenoma: an imperfect marker for chemoprevention.
Chan AT.~
Gut. 2010 May;59(5):568-9. No abstract available. PMID: 20427388 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related citations
++Primary prevention of colorectal cancer.
Chan AT, Giovannucci EL.~
Gastroenterology. 2010 Jun;138(6):2029-2043.e10. Review.PMID: 20420944 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related citations

-両者のヒット数はclinical queriesで610、clinicalのフィルタ無しでPubMedを直接検索したものは828であるから、clinicalフィルタによって3/4程度に限定されたことになる。

-トップ20の範囲で論文を比較してみると、一致している(clinicalのフィルタ無しに対して、フィルタありはANDでclinicalフィルタを掛けているので、部分集合になるはず)ものは
|clinicalフィルタ&br;リストでの番号 |同じ論文でフィルタ無し&br;リストでの番号 |
|i        |iii    |
|ii       | v     |
|iii      |iv     |
|iv       |x      |
|v        | xiii  |
|vi       |xiv    |
|vii      |xv     |
|viii     | xix   |
|ix       |xxii |
となっている。

-この中(フィルタ無しのトップ20の中)で、clinicalフィルタがどのように選別したかに注目する。
-(フィルタ無しリストから)clinicalフィルタが拾ったもの。拾ったものが妥当か?
--iii) Effect of daily aspirin on long-term risk of death due to cancer: analysis of individual patient data from randomised trials.  アスピリンの低用量常用(4年間以上?)が、大腸がんのみならず、他の幾つかのよく見られるがんの死亡率を軽減する効果がある、という8つの試行を調査した結果報告。
--v) Low-dose aspirin use and performance of immunochemical fecal occult blood tests.  低用量のアスピリン常用が、免疫化学的便潜血検査(iFOBT, Immunochemical fecal occult blood tests)のスクリーニング検出効果を、有意差を持って高めるという調査。
--vi) Inflammatory Markers are Associated with Risk of Colorectal Cancer and Chemopreventative Response to Anti-Inflammatory Drugs. 血清炎症マーカー値レベルと大腸がんの関係の調査。女性。マーカーのうち、CRP, IL-6は無いが、TNFR-2はCRCのリスクと相関。
--x) Long-term effect of aspirin on colorectal cancer incidence and mortality: 20-year follow-up of five randomised trials. 長期・低用量アスピリンの大腸がんへの効果統計。幾つかのトライアルについて20年超で大腸がんリスク・死亡率の軽減効果が見られた。
--xiii) Effect of aspirin and NSAIDs on risk and survival from colorectal cancer. 非ステロイド抗炎症薬(NSAID)の大腸がんリスク軽減の効果については言及があるが、具体的な用量、期間、生存効果などが未確定だったが、それを検証した。結果は低用量アスピリンの場合5年間では有意差なし。
--xiv) Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use and colorectal polyps in the prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian cancer screening trial.  非ステロイド抗炎症薬(アスピリン、イブプロフェン)による大腸がんのリスク軽減の統計的効果測定
--xv) Ornithine decarboxylase-1 polymorphism, chemoprevention with eflornithine and sulindac, and outcomes among colorectal adenoma patients.  +316位置のODC1(Ornithine decarboxylase-1)多型は、転移活性化・抑制による結合に影響し二次的大腸腺腫のリスクを変動させる。特にアスピリン使用時において影響する。Eflornithine(DFMO, Ornithine阻害剤)の治験でgenotypeした結果。
--xix) Role of vitamin and mineral supplementation and aspirin use in cancer survivors. マルチビタミン・マルチミネラル等ががん患者におよぼす影響の調査・評価(調査・評価法不明)
--xxii) Effect of statin therapy on colorectal cancer. は大腸がんへのスタチンの効果について、メタアナリシスした結果。低用量aspirinとの併用がよいかも(may be useful)という結論。


-除外されたものが妥当か?
--i) Cyclooxygenase as a Target for Colorectal Cancer Chemoprevention.は生化学系の論文で、フィルタ後のリストの xv) COX-2 as a target for cancer chemotherapy.と似た方向性である。
--ii) Association between Folate Levels and CpG Island Hypermethylation in Normal Colorectal Mucosa.  は生化学的研究の論文
--iv) The Melbourne Colorectal Cancer Study: reflections on a 30-year experience.はメルボルンにおける30年にわたる調査の結果。多様な要因との関係を分析する中で、アスピリンの常用の効果を指摘。
--vii) Genetic variation in the TGF{beta}-signaling pathway and colon and rectal cancer risk.は生化学的研究の論文
--viii) Aspirin: old drug, new uses and challenges は、aspirinが従来以外の疾病にも効果があると言われる(たとえば大腸癌)が、一方でulcerative complicationがありえるのでlowest effectve doseをすべき、という論文
--ix) TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand cooperates with NSAIDs via activated Wnt signalling in (pre)malignant colon cells. 生化学的研究の論文
--xi) Aspirin to prevent colorectal cancer: time to act?
Benamouzig R, Uzzan B.  LancetのEditorialで、Rothwellらの論文(フィルタありリストのiv) Long-term effect of aspirin on colorectal cancer incidence and mortality: 20-year follow-up of five randomised trials. Lancet 201010.1016/S0140-6736(10)61543-7を紹介。
--xii) Aspirin promotes apoptosis in a murine model of colorectal cancer by mechanisms involving downregulation of IL-6-STAT3 signaling pathway. マウスによるAspirinのColorectal cancerへの影響のin vivo実験
--xvi) Risk of proximal colonic neoplasms in asymptomatic adults older than 50 years found to have distal hyperplastic polyps on routine colorectal cancer screening.  大腸の下から50cm以下のポリープの検出の、スクリーニングとしての効果についての調査。その因子の1つにaspirin、NSAIDが含まれている。
--xvii) Use of Aspirin and NSAIDs to Prevent Colorectal Cancer [Internet]. 大腸がんに対するAspirin, NSAID, COX-2 Inhibitorの効果を、既存文献を系統的にレビューした。
--xviii) Long-term Use of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors Is Associated With Decreased Incidence of Advanced Adenomatous Colon Polyps.
大腸ポリープに対するLisinopril(angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitorという種類の医薬品)の長期投与効果を、後向き調査(疫学)にて評価
--xx) The comparison of the clinical manifestations and risk factors of colorectal cancer and adenomas: results from a colonoscopy-based study in southern Chinese. 広州のNanfang病院で、大腸内視鏡検査を受けた患者について、人口統計・臨床所見・内視鏡・病理・リスク因子等との情報を収集分析した結果。

*どういう論文を区別したいか? [#xc4b19f3]

*次の実験 [#c50305ef]
それぞれのabstractの中で、語「aspirin」の周囲の文法構造と、語「colorectal cancer」の周辺の文法構造を見て、abstract例間の類似性・違いを比較する。
それぞれのabstractの中で、語「aspirin」の周囲の文法構造と、語「colorectal cancer」の周辺の文法構造を見て、abstract例間の類似性・違いを比較する。~
  >> [[ノート/テキストマイニング/MeSH3]]

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